Static friction does no work but YOU DO work against the force of sliding friction!
Work is the conversion of one form of energy into another. You do positive work on the cabinet, but the cabinet is not gaining potential energy, (it is not being pushed up a hill), and it is not gaining kinetic energy (it is moving with constant speed). The work done by the frictional force (negative work) on the cabinet transforms the energy you transfer to the object into disordered energy.
Sliding friction converts most of the work you do on the file cabinet into thermal energy. As you slide the cabinet across the floor, the bottom of the cabinet and the floor get warmer. This thermal energy cannot easily be converted back into ordered energy, it cannot easily be used to do useful work.
Sliding friction also causes wear. Some of the work you do on the file cabinet is converted into electrostatic potential energy. The atoms and molecules in a solid object are held together by electrical forces, and you have to do work to break them apart. To detach a cluster of atoms from the bottom of the file cabinet you must do work against the electrostatic force, in the same way, you must do work against the gravitational force to lift a rock up from the ground. As you slide your cabinet across the floor, some material is removed from the bottom of the cabinet and from the floor. It will not take long before the damage becomes visible.
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